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Haddington

The following lengthy quotation about the ancient parish of Haddington comes from the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, edited by Francis Groome, published in London, 1903.

Haddington, a royal (and formerly a parliamentary) burgh and a parish of Haddingtonshire, is said to derive its name from the Gaelic hofdingia-tun, or in more modern form huedinge toun, meaning 'princes' town; while earlier etymologists derive it from Haden, a Saxon chief who is said to have settled on the banks of the Tyne. Lying 150 feet above sea-level, the town occupies a pleasant situation, almost in the centre of the county, on the left bank of the river Tyne, which here makes a semicircular sweep; and it is overlooked by the GARLETON Hills (590 feet) 1½ mile to the N. By road it is 17 miles E of Edinburgh and 11 WSW of Dunbar; whilst, as terminus of a branch line of the North British, it is 4¾ miles ESE of Longniddry Junction, this being 13½ miles E by N of Edinburgh and 44 WNW of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Though still a comparatively small place, and though for a long period of a somewhat mean appearance, it now is one of the neatest and cleanest towns of Scotland, with spacious and straight main thoroughfares, containing an abundant array of shops, and with good, sometimes even handsome, edifices, amongst which a few curious ancient houses still remain. The town of Haddington is lighted by gas, the gaswork being situated at the west end of the burgh, and comprises three principal streets and various minor thoroughfares connecting those with each other and with the outlying parts of the town. Court Street, leading from the West Port to the Town Hall, was formerly named King Street. Across the river to the E lies the ancient barony of Nungate, now included in the burgh of Haddington, and chiefly inhabited by the poorer classes; at the western extremity of the High Street is the suburb of Gallow Green; and the outskirts of the town are adorned with pleasant villas. The rich agricultural landscape surrounding Haddington, and the graceful curve made by the Tyne, which here first begins to assume the dimensions of a river, render the situation and appearance of the local capital very pleasing. The Tyne is spanned at Haddington by four bridges. The Abbey Bridge , a structure of three arches dating from medieval times , spans the river 1 mile E of the town near the site of the old abbey; and the Nungate Bridge, also an ancient erection, has three arches over the river, and two smaller ones across Giffordgate. The Waterloo Bridge was built in 1817, and spans the Tyne to the S of the town. Stevenson Bridge, a useful iron foot-bridge, crosses the Tyne at the W end of the Haugh. The river, though, adding much to the beauty and comfort of Haddington, has at various dates occasioned great damage in time, of flood. In 1368 the convent (mentioned further on) was on the point of being swept away by one of these inundations; but, according to legend, was preserved by the courageous conduct of one of the nuns, who seized an image of the Virgin Mary and threatened to throw it into the flood, unless the impending destruction was averted. A tablet erected in the town commemorates a great flood that took place on 4 Oct. 1775, when the river rose 17 feet in one hour. 'Thanks be to God' concludes the Latin inscription, 'that it was not in the night-time, for no one perished.' The part of the river near Haddington was formerly preserved by the earl of Wemyss, but he has liberally thrown it open as far as his property extends.

At the west end of the town stand the County Buildings erected in 1833 from a design by Mr Burn of Edinburgh at a cost of £5500. They are in the Tudor style of architecture, and are built chiefly of stone procured near the town, though the facade is constructed of polished stone from Fife. They contain the sheriff and justice of peace court rooms, and the various county offices. Immediately to the E stand the Corn Exchange, erected in 1854 at a cost of upwards of £2400 after designs by Mr Billings This spacious edifice, said to be exceeded in size among buildings of its class in Scotland only by the Corn Exchange in Edinburgh, measures within walls 128 feet in length and 50 in breadth. Its front elevation though somewhat plain is massive and not inelegant. The Town Buildings, situated at the junction of Street and Back Street, were erected in 1748 from a plan of William Adam, the celebrated architect. They were enlarged in 1830-31 by the addition of a spacious town-hall and an ornamental spire 170 feet high, from designs by Mr Gillespie Graham. They contain town-council room, the assembly room, and public reading room. In Hardgate Street is situated Bothwell Castle, an old town house of the Earls of Bothwell. Near the town stands the County Lunatic asylum a handsome building opened in 1866, with accommodation for 90 patients. In the vicinity of the railway a monument to Robert Ferguson of Raith, who was member of parliament for Haddingtonshire from 1835 to 1837, was raised in 1843 at a cost of £650. It consists of a statue, by Robert Forrest, surmounting a Doric fluted column, whose base is adorned with four life-size figures of mourners. In 1880, at a cost of over £1000, a memorial was erected to George, eighth Marquis of Tweeddale (1787-1876). Designed by Mr Rhind of Edinburgh it is a reproduction of the beautiful old Elizabethan well at Pinkie House, and consists of an arch with a bust of the marquis, surmounted by an elaborate crown, the height of whose finial is 25 feet. In 1880, too, a new cross 10 feet high, resting on three steps, and bearing the Haddington arms, was presented to the burgh by Messrs Bernard.

The chief ecclesiastical edifice in Haddington is the Abbey (parish) church. Of dark red sandstone this building dates from about the 12th or 13th century, and it stands in an open area to the SE of the town, close beside the river. The choir and transepts are in a ruinous condition; but the square tower 90 feet high, is still entire, and the aisled, five-bayed nave or western part of the gross is used as the parish church having been fitted up in a superior manner in 1811 with 1233 sittings at a cost of £6000. This church underwent an entire renovation in 1890-93, when an organ was put in, and a pulpit, communion table, font, lectern and pictorial window were presented by the Misses Aitchison, Alderston. Originally a cruciform edifice in the Decorated style, with earlier Transition and even Norman features, the Abbey church measured from E to W 210 feet, and from N to S, across the transepts, 110 feet. The breadth of the nave was 62 feet. It long has borne the title Lucerna Loudonioe, or Lamp of Lothian, though that name seems originally to have belonged to the now vanished church of the Franciscan monastery, on account both of its beauty and of the distance at which its lights were visible. In the aisle is the splendid monument of the Lauderdale family The parish consists of two charges - the first with a stipend of £352 and a manse, the second of £383 and a manse. St John's chapel of ease is a neat Gothic building, erected in 1838 at a cost of £1600. There are also one Free church (St John's) two United Presbyterian churches, the East and the West, a plain Gothic Episcopalian chapel of 1770, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, renovated in 1843 and seated for 300, and St Mary's Roman Catholic in 1862, and seated for 360. In Nungate there is a ruined chapel dedicated to St Martin. A handsome new building, known as the Knox Memorial Institute and bearing a life-size statue of the great reformer on its tower, which is 14 feet square and 80 high was erected in 1878-80 at a cost of £10,000. It comprises, besides the school a lecture room to hold 400. The old and once famous grammar school of Haddington is included in the Institute, whose endowment of £112 has been largely increased by recent subscriptions, over £1000 having been subscribed for bursaries. The primary and a Roman Catholic school, with respective accommodation for 689 and 165 children, have an average attendance of about 480 and 120, and grants or over £535 and £100. The former mathematical school, where Edward Irving was teacher in 1810-12, was incorporated with the grammar school. Among other means of culture are a law library, a town and county library, and a free town library and reading room, originating in a bequest of books about 1717 by the Rev. John Gray of Aberlady; (On occasion of an effort to establish an adequate library in the town, the Athenaeum of 20 Aug. 1881 gave a list of 44 of the rarer works in this bequest, including three missals of 1497,1510, and 1529, two black-letter prayer-books of 1616 and 1637, an Aldine Pliny (1508),an Elzevir Martial (1622), Beza's Icones (1680), A large collection of Scottish pamphlets of the 17th century, etc.) and it should be mentioned that Haddington was the headquarters of the itinerating libraries organised in 1817 for the good of the people of East Lothian by the philanthropic Samuel Brown. Amongst the various associations that have their seats or headquarters at Haddington are the United East Lothian Agricultural Society, the East Lothian Agricultural Club, the Haddington New Club, clubs for curling, golf, bowling, cycling, football, and cricket, lodges of Good Templars, Freemasons, Oddfellows, Foresters, and Free Gardeners the East Lothian and the Haddington horticultural societies, a naturalists' club, an ornithological society, a female society for the relief of the poor and a rifle association, It is also the headquarters of the 7th Volunteer Battalion Royal Scots. Two weekly papers - The Haddingtonshire Advertiser (1880) and the Haddingtonshire Courier (1859 - are published in the town on Friday. There are branch offices of the Bank of Scotland, British Linen Company's Bank' the Commercial Bank of Scotland, and the Royal Bank, besides a savings bank; and numerous insuring companies are represented in Haddington by agents or offices.

The drainage and the water supply are now excellent. Till 1874 the town depended for its water upon local wells; but in Oct. 1874 it acquired a supply of more than 100,000 gallons per day of pure spring water from works constructed, at a cost of about £5000 on the Earl of Wemyss's estate; and in 1893 a supplementary supply was introduced, costing between £6000 and £7000.

Haddington can boast of no great manufacturing industry, though it does a large amount retail trade in supplying the surrounding district, and though a vast amount of agricultural produce changes hands at its weekly markets. A woollen manufactory on an extensive scale was begun in 1681 in the suburb of Nungate by a company employing English workmen. It purchased some of the lands that had formerly belonged to the monastery, erected fulling-mills, dye-houses, and other premises, and gave the whole the name of Newmills. The company was exempted by various Scottish Acts of Parliament from certain taxes, and Colonel Stanfield, the chief partner, received the honour of knighthood for his exertions; but after his death the prosperity of the company came to an end, and Colonel Charteris, purchasing their lands, changed the name from Newmills to Amisfield, after the ancient seat of his forefathers in Nithsdale. In 1750, and again at a later date, vigorous attempts were made to revive the industry, but both proved abortive. The industrial establishments that are now situated in the town or its immediate neighbourhood include one or two small woollen mills, breweries, foundries, coach works, corn mills, agricultural implement factories, and a tannery and skinnery. The chief commercial interest, however, centres in its grain markets, which were the largest in Scotland until the construction of railways enabled those of Edinburgh to excel them. Markets are held at Haddington in the Corn Exchange every Friday. Oats are sold at 12 o'clock, barley at 20 minutes past 12, beans and pease at 15 minutes to 1, and wheat at one o'clock. A hiring market for farm servants is held at Haddington on the first Friday of February, and an Autumn fair on the Friday before the second Tuesday in October.

Haddington is a royal burgh of very ancient standing, and by the Burgh Police (Scotland) Act of 1892 is governed by a provost, 2 bailies, and 6 councillors. Prior to the date of the Burgh Reform Act, the town council, according to an act of the Convention of Royal Burghs in 1665, consisted of 16 merchant and trades councillors The council nominates a baron-bailie of Nungate, another of a portion of Gladsmuir parish which holds feu of the burgh and two Burlaw bailies, but none of these functionaries hold courts. The municipal constituency in 1896 was 849, of whom 185 were women The income of the town is derived from lands, houses feu-duties, customs and market dues, and fees on the entry of burgesses. It amounted in 1831-32 to £1422; in 1860-61 to £1173, in 1881-82 to £1334, and in 1894-95 to £1736. At one time Haddington was the seat of a circuit justiciary court; but it now sends all its justiciary business to Edinburgh. The sheriff court meets at Haddington every Thursday during session for ordinary, debt recovery, and small debt business. A justice of peace court is held on the second Tuesday of every month, and a court of quarter-sessions is held on the first Tuesday of March, the third Tuesday of April the first Tuesday of August, and the last Tuesday of October. The burgh and county are united for police purposes, and the burgh has also an officer who unites the functions of inspector of nuisances, sanitary inspector, lodging-house inspector, and inspector under the Explosives Acts. In 1880 the royal burgh was extended so as to include the whole of the parliamentary burgh, which formed one of the Haddington group of burghs until 1885, when by the Redistribution of Seats Act of that year the group was abolished and the representation merged in that of the county. The annual value of property in the burgh in 1871 was £13,392; in 1882-83, £16,202, 17s.; and in 1895-96, £17,278. Pop. (1831) 3857, (1841) 3777, (1851) 3883, (1861) 3897; (1871) 4007, (1881) 4043, (1891) 3771, of whom 1974 were females.
Houses (1891) inhabited 850, vacant 92,

Haddington is mentioned as a burgh in David I's confirmation charter to Dunfermline Abbey (1130) and Ada, daughter of the Earl of Surrey and Warren, received it in 1139 as dower on her marriage with Prince Henry, David's son. On her death, in 1178, William the Lyon inherited it as a royal demesne, and here in 1198, was born his son Alexander II. Under the reign of this last the town seems first to have felt the miseries of war, for in 1216 it was burned by King John of England during his incursion into the Lothians. In 1242 the Earl of Athole was assassinated within its walls, in revenge for his having overthrown Walter de Bisset in tournament. Two years later Haddington was again destroyed by the flames, on the same night we are significantly told, as several other Scottish towns. Though formally demanded in 1293 from John Baliol by Edward I., it does not seem to have suffered much in the wars of the succession. In 1355-56 Edward III. invaded Scotland to avenge the seizure of Berwick by the Scots and Haddington was a third time reduced to ashes. In 1400 Henry IV. of England entered Haddington, but did no damage; and in 1503 the Princess Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., spent one night there on her way to Edinburgh. But the most famous event in the history the town is its siege. In April 1548, the year after the Battle of Pinkie, the English seized Haddington fortified it, and left a strong garrison to defend it under Sir James Wilford. The Scots, largely reinforced by foreign troops, and commanded by the French general Andre de Montalembert, Sieur D'Essé, immediately laid siege to the town. The garrison made a long and gallant resistance, repulsed assaults, and led sallies, during one of which Wilford was captured. At last however, plague appeared among the garrison, and the English determined to evacuate the place. To prevent the soldiers and military stores from falling into the hands of the besieging army, the Earl of Rutland marched into Scotland with 6000 men, entered Haddington by night, and on l Oct. 1549 safely conducted all 'the soldiers and artillery to Berwick. No vestiges of the fortifications now remain. There is a full temporary account of the siege of Haddington in Jean de Beaugué's Histoire de la Guerre d'Ecosse.

In 1598 Haddington was again burned. The calamity having been occasioned through the carelessness of a maidservant in placing a screen covered with clothes . too near a fire-place during the night, the magistrates enacted that a crier should perambulate the town during the winter evenings, warning the people to guard against fire. The ceremony got the name of 'Coal an' Can'le' from the following rude verses which the crier recited

A'guid mens servants where'er ye be,
Keep coal an can'le for charitie !
Baith in your kitchen an' your ha',
keep weel your fires whatever befa!
In bakehouse, brewhouse, barn, and byre,
I warn ye a keep weel your fire
For oftentimes a little spark
Brings mony hands to mickle wark!
Ye nourrices that hae bairns to keep,
See that ye fa' nae o'er sound asleep,
For losing o' your guid renoun,
An' banishing o' this barrous toun
'Tis for your sakes that I do cry:
Tak' warning by your neighbours bye!

A privy council order of 10 Nov. 1636, anent some Egyptians or Gipsies, prisoners in Haddington tollbooth, ordained 'the men to be hanged, and the women to be drowned, and such of the women as have children to be scourged through the burgh and burned in the cheek.' Beyond the visit from Oliver Cromwell on 30 Aug. 1650, already narrated under DUNBAR), the later history of Haddington contains little more of interest. The great Reformer, John Knox (1505-72), was born at Haddington; and the site of his birthplace in Giffordgate is marked by a tree which was planted in 1881 in accordance with one of the last wishes of Thomas Carlyle. (See GIFFORD.) John Brown (1722-87), author of the Self- Interpreting Bible, was minister of the Secession congregation from 1751 to his death; and at Haddington were born his son, the Rev. John Brown (1754- 1832), the author of various works, and his grandson Samuel Brown, MD (1817-57), an able chemist. Other illustrious natives were John Heriot (1760-1833), miscellaneous writer and editor of the Sun and True Briton, David Scott (1675 1742), author of a History of Scotland, Samuel Smiles (b. 1816), author of Self Help, etc., and Jane Welsh (1801-66), whose tombstone in the abbey churchyard records how for forty years she was the true and ever-loving helpmate of Thomas Carlyle, and, by act and word, unweariedly forwarded him, as none else could, in all of worth that he did or attempted'.

Haddington gives the title of Earl, in the peerage of Scotland, to the descendants of the Hamiltons of Innerwick, the remote kinsmen of the ducal family of Hamilton. In 1606, Sir John Ramsay, brother of George Lord Ramsay of Dalhousie, and the chief protector of James VI. from the conspiracy of the Earl of Gowrie, was created Viscount Haddington and Lord Ramsay of Barns; in 1615 he was raised to a place among the peers of England, by the titles of Earl of Holderness and Baron Kingston-upon- Thames, but dying, in 1625 without issue, he left all his honours to be disposed of' at the royal will. In 1627 Thomas Hamilton of Priestfield - who was eminent as a lawyer, and had become Lord-President of the Court of Session and Secretary of State, and had been created Baron of Binning and Byres in 1613, and Earl of Melrose in 1619 - obtained the king's permission to change his last and chief title into that of Earl of Haddington. In 1827, Thomas;, ninth Earl, while only heir-apparent, was created Baron Melrose of Tyninghame in the peerage of the United Kingdom; and this nobleman, during the brief administration of Sir Robert Peel in 1834-35, was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. The family seats are Tyninghame House, 2¾ miles NE of East Linton, and Mellerstain and Lennel House in Berwickshire.

The parish of Haddington occupies the centre of Haddingtonshire, and is bounded on the N by the parish of Athelstaneford, on the E by Prestonkirk and Morham, on the S by Yester, Bolton, Salton, and Gladsmuir, and on the W by Gladsmuir and Aberlady. Its form is exceedingly irregular, consisting of a main body 4½ miles long by 3 broad, with five projections radiating therefrom. Its greatest length, from NNW to SSE, is 8 1/3 miles; its greatest breadth, at right angles to its longer axis is 7 miles; and its area is 12,113 acres, of which nearly 50 are water. Except in the N which is occupied by the rounded summits of the Garleton Hills the surface of the parish presents a beautifully undulating landscape, covered with prosperous farms or dignified private grounds. The southern slopes of the Garleton Hills are clothed with fine plantations; and on tile top of Byres or Byrie Hill, one of the summits, stands a monument, erected in 1824 to John, fourth Earl of Hopetoun, one of the heroes of the Peninsular War. It has an ascent of 132 steps, and is visible from Edinburgh 17 miles distant. The river Tyne traverses the parish from SW to NE: in a sinuous course that maintains an average breadth of from 50 to 56 feet. Trap rock forms the mass of the Garleton Hills, though on the southern slopes that is overlaid by calciferous sandstone; and sandstone of various kinds and qualities prevails in the rest of the parish. The soil towards the SW border is shallow and inferior, but elsewhere it is good and in high cultivation. About 1250 acres are under wood and more than 500 in pasture, while the rest is cultivated. Coal has been sought for but not found. There is a weak chalybeate spring called Dobson's Well, about ½ mile W of the burgh. The industries of the parish besides agriculture, are restricted to the town of Haddington.

Besides the burgh of Haddington the parish contains the hamlets of Abbey and St Lawrence. A mile and a quarter S of Haddington stands Lennoxlove House, anciently called Lethington, the seat of Lord Blantyre. Part of it dates from very antique times, and was a very strong fortalice. Lethington was the home of Sir Richard Maitland and of James VI's chancellor, Secretary Lethington, and for a long period it was the chief seat of the Lauderdale family. The first park wall, 12 feet high, enclosing an area of more than 12 square mile, is said to have been raised in six weeks by the Duke of Lauderdale, in order to save his country from the reproach of the Duke of York, that there was not a single deer park in it. The other chief seats, all noticed separately, are AMISFIELD, STEVENSON HOUSE, MONKRIGG, COALSTOUN, CLERKINGTON, LETHAM, ALDERSTON and HUNTINGTON. The North British Railway traverses one of the projections of the parish, and there is a branch of that railway to the burgh within the parish Six miles of the great road from Edinburgh to the E of England lie within its limits, besides a section of a road to North Berwick, and numerous subordinate roads. Haddington parish is in the presbytery of Haddington and the Synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The churches have already been noticed. The origin of the parish is difficult to trace. At the accession of David I. in 1123 it was a clearly defined district, though both then and afterwards of a larger extent than now- Till 1674 it comprehended a significant part of Athelstaneford, and till 1692, of Gladsmuir also. The ancient church dedicated to the Virgin, was granted about 1134 by David I. to the priory of St Andrews, which held it with all its endowments, including the lands of Clerkington on both sides of the Tyne, till the Reformation. Six chapels also were situated in the parish - those of St Lawrence, which has given its name to a hamlet, St Martin, St Catherine, St Kentigern, and St John, and one in the barony of Penston which previous to the erection of Gladsmuir parish lay within the limits of Haddington. At the Reformation the property of all these chapels, with that of the church to which they were attached, belonged, as part of the immense possessions of the priory of St Andrews, to James Stewart, the notorious Earl of Moray, the bastard brother and the minister of Mary of Scotland. The possessions were soon after usurped by the Earl of Morton, during the period of his regency; and when he was put to death for his participation in the murder of Darnley, they were forfeited to the Crown. Esme, Duke of Lennox, the cousin and favourite of James VI., next obtained them, as a temporal lordship, from the king. Later, Thomas, the first Earl of Haddington, purchased the Haddington portion of the lordship - consisting of the patronage and property and emoluments of the church and its chapels - from Ludovic the son of Esme and in 1620 obtained from the king a confirmation of his purchase. In the 18th century the patronage and property were transferred, by another purchase, to Charles, the first Earl of Hopetoun, and they have since continued in the possession of his descendants. From the Reformation till 1602 the churches of Haddington and Athelstaneford and the chapel of St Martin were all served by one minister, and not long afterwards St Martin's was abandoned. In 1633 Haddington church was appointed ono of the twelve prebends of the chapter of Edinburgh, and in 1685 a second minister was appointed. From the 12th or 13th century to the Reformation Haddington gave its name to a deanery. The parish also contained a Franciscan monastery, dating probably from the 12th century. Edward I. is said to have destroyed it, and there are now no vestiges of it extant, unless the present church may be held as having formed part of it. At the village of ABBEY there stood a convent of Cistercian nuns, founded in 1178 by Ada, Countess of Northumberland and mother of Malcolm IV. and William the Lyon. It was dedicated by her to the Virgin, and it was endowed with extensive and valuable possessions, of which the lands of Nunside or Nunlands, now Huntington, and the church of Athelstaneford with its teinds were only a part. In 1296, Eva, the prioress, made submission to Edward 1., and obtained the restoration of her rights. James II. granted a charter to the priory in 1468, confirming one previously obtained from the bishop of St Andrews in 1349. In 1471 the lairds of Yester and Makerston forcibly seized part of the Abbey lands, and the nuns had to seek the aid of parliament against them. In 1548 the Estates held a parliament in the convent, at which it was resolved to send the infant Queen Mary to France. At the Reformation the number of nuns in the convent was 18; and its revenues amounted to £308, 17s. 6d., besides various contributions paid in kind. The lands were conferred by Mary on her secretary, William Maitland of Lethington; and afterwards they were converted into a temporal lordship in favour of John, Master of Lauderdale. Valuation, excluding burgh, (1872) £28,061, 4s., (1883) £22,888, 6s (1892) £19 442 3s. 2d. Pop. of entire parish (1801) 4049, (1831) 5883, (1841) 5452, (1871) 5735, (1881) 5660 (1891) 5216. Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863.

The Established presbytery of Haddington comprises the parishes of Aberlady, Athelstaneford, Bolton, Dirleton, Garvald, Gladsmuir, Haddington, Humbie Morham, North Berwick, Pencaitland, Prestonpans, Salton, Tranent, and Yester, and the quoad sacra parish of Cockenzie, with the chapelries of St John's (Haddington) and Gullane. Pop. (1871) 25,545, (1881) 25,742 (1891) 25,474, of whom 6370 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1895. The Free Church has also a presbytery of Haddington and Dunbar, with churches at Cockburnspath, Cockenzie, Dirleton, Dunbar, Garvald, Haddington, Humbie, Innerwick, North Berwick, Pencaitland, Prestonkirk, Prestonpans, Salton, Tranent, and Yester, which 15 together had 2483 members in 1894.

See Dr Barclays 'Account of the parish of Haddington' in Trans Soc Ants Scotl (1792); James Millers Lamp of Lothian, or the History of Haddington (Had. 1844); an article on p.926 of the Builder (1878); the two works cited under CRAIGENPUTTOCH; James Purves's 'Tyningtown' in Frasers Magazine (March 1881); the chapter on 'A Typical Scotch Town' by Francis Watt, in Picturesque Scotland (Lond. 1882); and James Robb's Guide to the Royal Burgh of Haddington, Past and Present.


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Last updated 5 March 2003